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Descriptions of foreign education systems and overviews of common diplomas.

Tools to help with professional recognition within the EU.

Looking for ways to improve the recogition process.

The Netherlands has a binary higher education system.

Read about Nuffic's branding activities 'Study in Holland'.

'Make it in the Netherlands!' strengthens the country's ties with international talent.

The Code of Conduct guarantees the quality of higher education provided to international students.

See an overview of all open calls at Nuffic

Individual fellowships, group training and project funding.

Our Capacity Development Programme in Lebanon contributes to the improvement of future perspectives of host communities and refugees in Lebanon. It aims to strengthen the impact of existing Dutch financial interventions for stabilisation in Lebanon.

The Dutch Training Exposure programme (DUTEP) focuses on integrated urban water management. It provides opportunities for staff from the Jakarta Capital City government to spend a period in the Netherlands to learn from best practices here.

An EU-funded scholarship programme for Syrian refugee students.

Scholarships for professionals for short courses in the Netherlands.

Scholarships and capacity development programmes - phased out

The Tanzania Dutch Energy Capacity Building Programme focuses on the renewable energy and gas.

The capacity building statistics contain data and analysis on the Netherlands Fellowships Programmes (NFP), the MENA Scholarship Programme (MSP) and the Netherlands Initiative for Capacity development in Higher Education (NICHE).

Nuffic supports the International Aid Transparency Initiative (IATI)

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Nuffic’s Orange Knowledge Programme is a € 185 MIO global development programme, funded by the Dutch government. It was kicked off mid-2017 for a period of 5 years and involves around 50 countries.

Our objective is to contribute to a society’s sustainable and inclusive development by strengthening the skills and knowledge of both individuals, groups of individuals and organisations.

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Priority themes

The programme offers scholarships, training and institutional partnerships between education institutions in Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) and higher education, in fields related to the priority themes of the Dutch government:

Instruments

The Orange Knowledge Programme consists of 4 instruments:

Participating countries

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Theory of Change

For the Orange Knowledge Programme we developed a Theory of Change, outlining the desired outcomes and required interventions:

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Orange Knowledge Programme updates

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In the 15 years since the discovery of hepatitis C virus (HCV), much has been learned about its role as a major causative agent of human liver disease and its ability to persist in the face of host-cell defences and the immune system. This review describes what is known about the diversity of HCV, the current classification of HCV genotypes within the family Flaviviridae and how this genetic diversity contributes to its pathogenesis. On one hand, diversification of HCV has been constrained by its intimate adaptation to its host. Despite the >30 % nucleotide sequence divergence between genotypes, HCV variants nevertheless remain remarkably similar in their transmission dynamics, persistence and disease development. Nowhere is this more evident than in the evolutionary conservation of numerous evasion methods to counteract the cell's innate antiviral defence pathways; this series of highly complex virus-host interactions may represent key components in establishing its 'ecological niche' in the human liver. On the other hand, the mutability and large population size of HCV enables it to respond very rapidly to new selection pressures, manifested by immune-driven changes in T- and B-cell epitopes that are encountered on transmission between individuals with different antigen-recognition repertoires. If human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is a precedent, future therapies that target virus protease or polymerase enzymes may also select very rapidly for antiviral-resistant mutants. These contrasting aspects of conservatism and adaptability provide a fascinating paradigm in which to explore the complex selection pressures that underlie the evolution of HCV and other persistent viruses.

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Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are the remnants of ancient germ cell infection by exogenous retroviruses and occupy up to 8% of the human genome. It has been suggested that HERV sequences have contributed to primate evolution by regulating the expression of cellular genes and mediating chromosome rearrangements. After integration approximately 28 million years ago, members of the HERV-K (HML-2) family have continued to amplify and recombine. To investigate the utility of HML-2 polymorphisms as markers for the study of more recent human evolution, we compiled a list of the structure and integration sites of sequences that are unique to humans and screened each insertion for polymorphism within the human genome databases. Of the total of 74 HML-2 sequences, 18 corresponded to complete or near-complete proviruses, 49 were solitary long terminal repeats (LTRs), 6 were incomplete LTRs, and 1 was a SVA retrotransposon. A number of different allelic configurations were identified including the alternation of a provirus and solitary LTR. We developed polymerase chain reaction-based assays for seven HML-2 loci and screened 109 human DNA samples from Africa, Europe, Asia, and Southeast Asia. Our results indicate that the diversity of HML-2 elements is higher in African than non-African populations, with population differentiation values ranging from 0.6 to 9.8%. These findings denote a recent expansion from Africa. We compare the phylogenetic relationships of HML-2 sequences that are unique to humans and consider whether these elements have played a role in the remodeling of the hominid genome.

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We have investigated the ability of different subgenomic fragments to reproduce the phylogenetic relationships observed between six complete genome sequences of GBV-C/hepatitis G virus (HGV). While similar relationships were observed following analysis of part of the 5' non-coding region (5'NCR), for the coding region they were not accurately reproduced for some large fragments or for the majority of fragments of 300 or 600 nucleotides. Analysis of 5'NCR sequences from a large number of isolates, including newly obtained sequences from Pakistan, Zaïre and Scotland, produced separate groupings of Asian, African and European/North American variants. These groupings are associated with specific polymorphisms in the 5'NCR, many of which were covariant and consistent with a proposed secondary structure for this region. The relatively low level of amino acid sequence variation observed between these geographically and phylogenetically defined groups of variants suggests that they are unlikely to display significant biological differences.

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Molecular techniques have been used to investigate the epidemiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV) at several different levels. At a global level, the time of divergence of the diverse HCV genotypes isolated from different geographical regions has been estimated from the rate of divergence observed among a cohort of individuals infected from a common source. Estimates of more than 300 years for virus subtypes and more than 500-2000 years for virus types are consistent with their current geographical distributions. Analysis of virus sequences has also provided evidence for a common source of infection in several large-scale outbreaks of HCV infection, although where there is evidence that the implicated source contains more than one variant it may be difficult to distinguish individuals infected by different sources. Finally, sequence analysis has been used to investigate the vertical or horizontal transmission of HCV between pairs of individuals. The hypervariable region of the E2 gene is the most informative region to study if samples are available soon after the transmission event, but evidence for more distant events can still be obtained from analysis of genes such as NS5b and E1. Interpretation of some studies is complicated by the conservation of the gene region studied, or by the failure to make comparisons with sequences from epidemiologically unrelated viruses.

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In patients with chronic hepatitis C, determination of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype could be routinely run in the future to tailor treatment schedules. The suitabilities of two versions of a serological, so-called serotyping assay (Murex HCV Serotyping Assay version 1-3 [SA1-3] and Murex HCV Serotyping Assay version 1-6 [SA1-6]; Murex Diagnostics Ltd.), based on the detection of genotype-specific antibodies directed to epitopes encoded by the NS4 region of the genome, for the routine determination of HCV genotypes were studied. The results were compared with those of a molecular biology-based genotyping method (HCV Line Probe Assay [INNO-LiPA HCV]; Innogenetics S.A.), based on hybridization of PCR products onto genotype-specific probes designed in the 5' noncoding region of the genome, obtained with pretreatment serum samples from 88 patients with chronic hepatitis C eligible for interferon therapy. Definitive genotyping was performed by sequence analysis of three regions of the viral genome in all samples with discrepant typing results found among at least two of the three assays studied. In all instances, sequence analysis confirmed the result of the INNO-LiPA HCV test. The sensitivity of SA1-3 was 75% relative to the results obtained by the genotyping assay. The results were concordant with those of genotyping for 92% of the samples typeable by SA1-3. The sensitivity of SA1-6 was 89% relative to the results obtained by the genotyping assay. The results were concordant with those of genotyping for 94% of the samples typeable by SA1-6. Overall, SA1-6 had increased sensitivity relative to SA1-3 but remained less sensitive than the genotyping assay on the basis of PCR amplification of HCV RNA. Cross-reactivities between different HCV genotypes could be responsible for the mistyping of 8 (SA1-3) and 6% (SA1-6) of the samples. Subtyping of 1a and 1b is still not possible with the existing peptides, but discriminating between subtypes may not be necessary for routine use.

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